Song from π!

Originally published on Mar 6, 2015 on Marina’s BD

Piano Solo – Intermediate
Composed by David Macdonald. 21st Century. Published by David Macdonald (S0.42069).

This song is written by taking the digits of π and assigning them to the notes of the A harmonic Minor scale.

This product was created by a member of SMP Press, the global community of independent composers, arrangers, and songwriters. All independent musicians have created unique compositions and arrangements for the Sheet Music Plus community, many of which are not available anywhere else.

Song of Pi

 

 

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Secret Sciences

Secret Sciences

“Not every science we know is a true science; only a handful of them are”, E.S.

In this article we discuss Secret Sciences and those which people consider being secret. Majority of those sciences, usually they are just products of imagination, deals with people tendency to believe in something other people call secret or those, they claim, that could be ‘understood’ by mature adults. There are many of them that I would like to cross out from human activity, even to read about, never mind, to discuss them publicly. We will be touching the essence of those ‘sciences’ just for the sake of debunking them Below is a short list of them in alphabetical order:

  1. Agnosticism –  is the truth values of certain claims are unknown
  2. Alchemy– when gold as a metal can be produced from another metal
  3. Alternative Medicine – is unknown methods of healing can have therapeutic effect
  4. Astrology – when solar planets can be influential over people’s life
  5. Chiropractic– is a manipulation of spine muscles can heal them
  6. Esotericism– when processes in Universe are reflected in people’s mind
  7. Homeopathy– is a therapy by small dosages
  8. Kabbalah– explains the significance of Jewish religious observances
  9. Metaphysics– explains the fundamental nature of being and the world
  10. Psychology– is the study of mind and behavior
  11. Parapsychology– is investigation of paranormal and psychic phenomena
  12. Religion– is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views

Before we provide descriptions for all 12 items listed above let’s make clear the following:

  • Among all 12 names listed above there is only one that includes all the others – that is Esotericism, sometimes pronounce asEsoteric.
  • Some of those ‘sciences’ are still alive and they are well known in the world and heavily practiced.
  • Some of them are very popular by many people and nations around the globe.
  • Some of them are even taught in schools and colleges.

Many of them are still used by billions of people around the world.

All of the items listed above are pure people’s imagination one way or another.

 DESCRIPTIONS

Agnosticism 

According to Wikipedia, agnosticism is described here… In addition to this information the agnosticism is a term existing in philosophy, ideology and theology. It assumes that it is in fundamentally impossible to cognitively accept objective reality other than through the subjective experience and knowledge and within marginal and absolute basis of reality. Also agnosticism denies the opportunity to prove or disprove ideas and assertions based entirely on subjective assumptions. Sometimes agnosticism is defined as philosophy whereby the world cannot be cognitive (becomes known).

Alchemy

Alchemy in its original interpretation is the idea of transmutation of metals – converting one metal to another (mainly base metals into gold), which has become the main concern of the alchemy period. It is also defined as the art of making gold and silver and a stage of the preparation of artificial gold, as well as the prohibition of disclosure of the secrets of this art. National Geographic has a video where the secret of making gold is reviled in Paris museum. It was just a very good trick.

Alternative Medicine

Alternative Medicine is a collective term for methods of applying an ‘ability’ to treat (or prevent) disease or health deficiencies. It has not been proven to be scientific. Typical examples include homeopathy, acupuncture and naturopathy. The alternative medicine is called alternative if it is used instead of conventional medicine.

If non-traditional methods are used in conjunction with medicine, this practice is called complementary medicine. In the North America it is used the term “Complementary and Alternative Medicine” when mentioning complementary and alternative practitioners of alternative medicine.  The World Health Organization does not recommend the use of alternative medicine and is making efforts to promote evidence-based approach to assess the safety, efficacy and quality of non-traditional methods to confirm or refute the scientific method.

Astrology

Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events, in another words, predicting the future. Contemporary Western astrology is often associated with systems of horoscopes that purport to explain aspects of a person’s personality and predict significant events in their lives based on the positions of celestial objects. According to professional astrologers they rely on such systems of planet superposition and create charts to defraud the public.

Despite the large number taken in parascience attempts to give a physical basis of astrology, modern science denies the validity of the astrological techniques and qualifies astrology as a pseudoscience and prejudice. Encyclopedia Britannica refers to magic astrology and conjectural practices based on concepts that are inconsistent with scientific evidence.

Some modern astrologers use metaphoric or “symbolic language” in which the same statement allows many different interpretations. European and Indian astrology are derived from the Sumerian-Babylonian astral myths in which the heavenly bodies (sun, moon, planets) and constellations have been associated with gods and mythological figures, the influence of the gods on people’s lives within this mythology has been transformed into impact on the life of heaven. This mythology finally transformed into astrology the one we know these days.  As you can see not every search for the answers is transformed into a science or reality.

Chiropractic

Chiropractic is the most controversial pseudoscience of alternative medicine. Let’s see how good the chiropractic is. The main chiropractic treatment technique involves manual therapy, especially manipulation of the spine, other joints, and soft tissues, but may also include exercises and health and lifestyle counseling. The “specific focus of chiropractic practice” is chiropractic subluxation. Traditional chiropractic assumes that a vertebral subluxation or spinal joint dysfunction interferes with the body’s function and its innate intelligence.

As we said above chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine that attempts to diagnose and treat people through manipulation of the skeletal system, especially the spine. Chiropractic practitioner uses manual therapy, including manipulation of the spine, joints and soft tissues, as well as exercise and lifestyle counseling, which, in fact, has nothing to do with chiropractic.

Traditional chiropractic is based on vital signs and suggests that the problems of the spine affect the overall function of the body and the so-called “innate intelligence.” This approach is the subject of criticism of evidence-based medicine. Also, chiropractic has never been accepted by traditional medicine as a science of treatment. the last international conference on chiropractic in Seattle, WA in their final statement profoundly reject any healing effect of chiropractic manipulation leaving only its usefulness during acute pain cases.

Esotericism

Esotericism (from the ancient Greek. Ἐσωτερικός – internal) is a set of specific ways of perceiving reality with secret content and expression in a “psycho-spiritual practices”. The composition of Esotericism included magic, alchemy, astrology, Gnosticism, Kabbalah, Theosophy, Sufism, yoga, the Vajrayana (the Buddhist Tantrism) , Masonry, anthroposophy, modalism, and other pseudoscience.

There are different approaches to determining the specificity of esotericism as a special field of culture. Thus, in Russian history and philosophy of science esotericism is sometimes defined as a collection of diverse forms of knowledge produced by intellectual communities, acting outside the rationalist norms and standards, which differ from the classical scientific samples and standards and therefore attributable to the “agency” non-scientific knowledge. At the same time, some authors consider esotericism as a special type of rationality, which is currently undergoing a conscious reflection and conceptualization.

Homeopathy

Homeopathy is a system of alternative medicine created in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann based on his doctrine of like cures like, a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people. Homeopathy is a pseudoscience – a belief that is incorrectly presented as scientific. Homeopathic preparations are not effective for treating any condition;  large-scale studies have found homeopathy to be no more effective than a placebo, suggesting that any positive feelings that follow treatment are only due to the placebo effect and normal recovery from illness.

Among the findings of the British Parliament 2010 document on Homeopathy, the principle of “treating like with like” has no theoretical grounds and is not able to provide a reasonable mode of therapeutic use of homeopathic products, and the idea that if ultrahigh dilution retains traces of dissolved substances scientifically untenable.

Kabbalah

Kabbalah (Hebrew: קַבָּלָה‎, literally “receiving/tradition”[1]) is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism. A traditional Cabbalist in Judaism is called a Mekubbal (Hebrew: מְקוּבָּל‎).  Kabbalah is a mystical and religious-like of the esoteric Judaism, which appeared in the XII century and were extended in the XVI century. Kabbalah is an esoteric tradition and claims the secret knowledge contained in the Torah, the divine revelation.

Kabbalah is related to the comprehension of the Creator and the Creation, the role and objectives of the Creator, human nature, and its meaning of existence. Complete Kabbalah teaching was formed in the Middle Ages. The basis of the Kabbalah writings constitutes Yetzirah, Bagir, Zohar and the writings of the Ari (Rabbi Yitzhak Luria Ashkenazi, known as the Arizal). Like any esoteric pseudoscience Kabbalah’s claims required people to be old enough to accept and comprehend all mystical examples within its dogma.

Metaphysics

Metaphysics (ancient Greek. Τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά “beyond physics” and it is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it. Al though the term is not easily defined. Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms: Ultimately, what is there?

  1. What is it like?
  2. What is the cause of causes?
  3. What are the origins of the sources?
  4. What is the starting point?
  5. Where, literally, conceptually, or topologically these principles are located?
  6. Why we do not see “just” that hinders and prevents them to be visible “directly” without additional “operations”?
  7. What are the requirements for the “operation”, the execution of which could guarantee obtaining reliable answers to these questions?
  8. Who or what is generally puts these questions and why do these questions even exist?

Originally, the word “metaphysics” was used in the collection of 14 books of Aristotle with arguments about the first reason (“first birth things”), remaining after it in its raw form. Metaphysics maintains its status as one of the central values (concepts, categories, modes of thought) philosophy throughout history, from ancient times to the present day. For many philosophers, metaphysics is synonymous of philosophy in general.

With the modern views on the present state of computer science, Nano-electronics and global communication, including the Internet and space exploration, many questions originally stated by metaphysics are diminishing. People’s collective knowledge is growing with astonishing rate improving and replacing our old perception of the world around us.

Psychology

According to Wiki, Psychology is the study of mind and behavior. It is a behavior discipline and an applied science which seeks to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a socialbehavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive function engineering and behaviors.

Well, so far so good, as we usually say. However, the so-called science of psychology is dealing with a snap-shot of human behavior. It doesn’t have tools to analyze anything else dynamically. A simple guess to this phenomenon could, probably, shine a light to the whole science of psychology: is it real? Does the Psychology deal with something tangible or everything they ‘invented” is just imaginary and non-existent.

The writer of this article, when he just graduated with Master’s degree from engineering university in Belarus, had a chance to prepare himself for a post-graduated study towards his Ph.D. in psychology from another university. During his preparation for the exams he discovered that any or all claims and statements of the psychology are mistaken.

Below is a table of the most popular topics of psychological studies in comparison to their true values:

 

Psychology Comparison Chart

Psychology Claims

True meaning

Psychology is a science Psychology doesn’t explain anything, it just makes claims
Psychology studies human mind and human behavior Mistake: our mind consists of reflexes, known to neurology and unknown to Psychology as a science
Psychologist is a profession Their practice is based on Jean Piaget works and hypnosis
Psychology professors believe in this science and promote those believes Those professors do not believe in anything including Psychology as a science
Inventiveness is a God-feeling No, it is a science of TRIZ
Sleep and awakening are two states No, it is only one state
Memory is a function of our mind No, it is function of recombining neurons and synopsis
Memory retention and recall is a product of our mind Our mind doesn’t produce any products due to its only spiritual (non-existent) nature
People’s temperament has four levels Temperament is an emotion, one of 4 from 10,000 others
People’s feelings are great in numbers No, there are only 12 of them. All the others are reflexes
Psychology is profitable profession No, it is not, unless you have a Ph.D. in Psychology
Psychology helps to use cognition as a tool to study human mind and behavior No, you can’t apply cognitive approach to something that is pure spiritual as human mind and human behavior. There is nothing else there other than reflexes.
Psychology studies behavior patterns in human and animals Why don’t we study human and animal reflexes instead? At least, we can get some results from that study!

 Parapsychology

Parapsychology is a pseudoscience concerned with the investigation of paranormal and psychic phenomena which includes telepathy,precognitionclairvoyancepsychokinesisnear-death experiencesreincarnationapparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims.

In parapsychology, psi is the unknown factor in extrasensory perception and psychokinetic experiences that is not explained by known physical or biological mechanisms. The term is derived from the Greek ψ psi, 23rd letter of the Greek alphabet and the initial letter of the Greek ψυχή psyche, “mind, soul”. The term was coined by biologist Berthold P. Wiesner, and first used by psychologist Robert Thouless in a 1942 article published in the British Journal of Psychology.

The Parapsychological Association divides psi into two main categories: psi-gamma for extrasensory perception and psi-kappa for psychokinetic. In popular culture, “psi” has become more and more synonymous with special psychicmental, and “psionic” abilities and powers.

Parapsychology research also relates to other areas of psychology: trans-personal psychology, whereby it’s postulated transcendental aspects of the human mind, and abnormal psychology, which investigates paranormal beliefs and subjective anomalous events in traditional psychological conditions.

Most scientists consider parapsychology a pseudoscience because for more than a century of research within this discipline none of  acceptable evidence of the existence of the claimed “psychic” abilities have been properly documented and publicized.

Religion

religion is an organized collection of beliefscultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence. Many religions have narrativessymbols, and sacred histories that aim to explain the meaning of life, the origin of life, or the Universe. From their beliefs about the cosmos and human nature, people may derive moralityethicsreligious laws, or a preferred lifestyle.

Many religions may have organized behaviorsclergy, a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, holy places, and scriptures. The practice of a religion may include ritualssermons, commemoration or veneration (of a deitygods, or goddesses), sacrificesfestivalsfeaststrancesinitiationsfunerary servicesmatrimonial servicesmeditationprayermusicartdancepublic service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions may also contain mythology.

As we can see, the modern meaning of Religion (lat. Religare – reuniting) is a special form of consciousness of the world, due to the belief in the supernatural, which includes a set of moral norms and behaviors, outlook, ceremonies, cult of action and association of people in the organization (church, religious community, and temples).

The religious system of representation of the world (worldview) is based on religious belief and is related to the ratio of human to superhuman spiritual world or to some superhuman reality of which man knows something, and that it should in some way to orient their lives.

Faith can be supported by a mystical experience. Of particular importance to religion is such a thing as good and evil, morality, purpose and meaning of life and so on.

Fundamentals of religious beliefs of most religions of the world are written by people in the sacred texts, which, in the opinion of believers, either dictated or inspired directly by God or gods, or written by people who have reached higher spiritual state, such as great teachers, especially enlightened or initiated, holy and so on. Religion is the dominant worldview in most countries; the majority of respondents consider themselves to be one of the religion or the other.

Interesting to know that among non-believers, any religion is just a history of the people and their view towards each other and any imaginary substance which might be located anywhere.  Majority non-believers usually do not use imaginary objects, both spiritual and mind-driven, and do not apply any mystical quality to any of them. From their point of view any person who is believing to any super-mind or any imaginary entity can easily starts believing in totally ridiculous things like UFO, paranormal activity, supernatural “facts”, reincarnation, communication to dead people and animals, person-to-person healing, naturopathy,  and dozens of other never-been-proved phenomena.

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CONSCIOUSNESS, THOUGHTS, MIND AND SPIRIT: HOW REAL ARE THEY?

 CONSCIOUSNESS, THOUGHTS, MIND AND SPIRIT: HOW REAL ARE THEY?

 “Not everything we know is real. Some of them are and some of them aren’t” E.S.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • PART 1: KNOWLEDGE                                
  • PART 2: DEFINITIONS
  • PART 3: IMAGES

Preface:

All materials covered in this article might seem unbelievable for those of you who are not familiar with these topics. However, the more you read the more everything you
have doubts about will disappear. Enjoy.

 

PART 1: KNOWLEDGE

I remember how 50 years ago my dad, who was an amateur magician, said to me after visiting the latest mental magic show: everything you saw here tonight my son was nothing but trickery: nothing is real, only your impression is. Many decades later, after I became an engineer, a scientist, an inventor, and problem solving professional, I finally understood what my father was trying to convey to me. I will try to do the same to you. It might be difficult for some of you to accept my explanations, however, the sooner you develop a new approach to the terms outlined in this article, the better.

Let’s start from the beginning and see if can visualize several aspects of our perception:

Stage 1: a baby was born. This baby has no memory of the past, no memory of the possible future, and a very little memory of the present. We can draw a simple picture
to display this situation as follows:

Note that the length of a rectangular below represents the Total
Knowledge timeline a person can possess during his or her life time.

a. This is what baby knows.  b. This is what baby believes.  c. That is what baby doesn’t know                         

a

b

c

As you can see an amount of knowledge a new born baby has is very small. The same amount is what they believe, if they can. This ratio stays as it is for several months and it doesn’t change much for years until a child starts understanding a concept of time, space and knowledge. This unique ratio is just a rough approximation of a baby’s mind setting in terms of acquiring knowledge from the moment they are born.

When a child is getting older his or her knowledge time line moves into a different stage where the relationship between. item a, b and c become really noticeable. Starting with the stage we call Stage 2 the actual knowledge is the smallest among the others. The unknown part is still greater than any other part.

Stage 2: a teenager.  The older baby becomes, the more the ratio of all three components changes. Here is what happens to a teenager and his knowledge span during school years:

a.   This is what a teenager knows.   b. This is what a teenager believes   c. This is what a teenager doesn’t know                       

a

b

c

 Stage 3: a college student. Let’s assume that some of you have a college education.  What will be the Total Knowledge timeline of such a person and the ratio of all three components? Here is what happens to a college student and his knowledge span during college or university years:

<!   a.  This is what a college student knows. b. This is what a college student believes c. That is what a college student doesn’t know                       

a

b

c

Stage 4: an adult.
Let’s go a bit further and see what an adult who has spent his or her life by studying,
learning, experimenting and constantly updating own knowledge. What would it be
his or her Total Knowledge rectangular in relation to other components? Let’s
take a look:

a.      This is what an adult knows.   b. This is what an adult believes    c. That is what an adult doesn’t know                       

a

b

c

Knowledge Timeline

Are you wondering what happens when we put those 4 tables into one? Allow me to do that and them we can see something totally unexpected:

child

a

b

c

teenager

a

b

c

student

a

b

c

adult

a

b

c

 Something very interesting can be easily observed from the last three timelines:

  • An acquire knowledge in the Stage 2 is equal or more to the unknown knowledge and stays almost unchanged.
  • A college student has the all knowledge components are relatively equal to each other.
  • An adult has highest level of knowledge and the lowest level of unknown.
  • All levels of human development show similarity in only one component. That is where almost every man and woman is trying to replace knowledge, facts and truth of nature with their own believes. Well, people brain looks awfully similar, which means that people believes are also similar. That is why all blue components in people knowledge timeline s are also similar in size.

Now, we can make several observations from the images above:

  1.       The amount of knowledge any man or woman can acquire during their life time is finite. There is no exponential time span of knowledge. In fact, our knowledge can reach a plateau (flat area) where our knowledge doesn’t increase any longer. That is why the knowledge, in general, is finite to every one of us. It is different, but limited.
  2.       .     Knowledge that we acquire is growing in time, the older we are the more knowledgeable we become.
  3.              An amount of knowledge we did not acquire is getting smaller and smaller with time. It is obvious: component “a” and “c” are inversely proportional.
  4.       Components “b” stays the same. This is what we believe instead of using our knowledge (or knowledge of others).
  5.       A visible improvement to this ratio can be achieved only by reducing component “b” or even by eliminating it altogether.

Let’s discuss Item 5 above:

How are we going to achieve reduction of component “b”? How can we make sure that our personal knowledge will grow? How long will it take? Well, the answer to these questions is not too complicated to find. All we need to do is to assume that Component B is mistaken and can be eliminated in part or altogether. Why?

PART 2: DEFINITIONS

To find an answer to this question we need to agree to the following definitions:

The most important terms to be concerned about

Words

Emotions/feelings

Reflexes 

Illusions

Facts

Laws (Nature)

Logic

Perception

Knowledge

Inventions

Senses

Consciousness

State(s)
of mind

Thoughts

Spirit
(personal)

It is imperative for all of us to use identical or similar understanding of all these terms in order to speak ‘the same language’, as we say. I am planning to simplify the process of using definitions for the words listed above as much as possible, so we don’t get confused.

Word vs. Reflex

Let us start with the most important language symbol, the WORD. According to the modern child psychology, the Word is an image created within our brain to identify an object, a motion, a sensation, or anything else we can consume (by observation, by hearing, by tactile, by smell, by temperature, and by any combination of those). As you can see the process of consuming information by our brain is nothing more than a simple and elementary sensations called reflexes.  As you can see, a reflex is nothing else than
our acknowledgement of any sensation we consume, observe, see, touch and so on.
More about reflexes is in Part 2, Perception.

The more our brain becomes developed, the more words we consume, and the more complicated their internal parts tend to be. Here is an example of simple reflex: you touch a heating element of electric stove. The sensation of this process will create a new reflex consisting of many little reflexes being included into the fact that from now on you will refrain from touching a stove, such as: a burning sensation, you need to put a patch on, you might need to keep your hand in the buckle of ice, you won’t be able to use your computer, or you will need to go to your family doctor for help. What do you think this new reflex you created is different form the simple temperature reflex we have right from our birth? It is just bigger and consists of other reflexes. And, as you remember from the first definition of Word, this new reflex is just a reflex.

Emotions/Feelings

I want you to become as honest to yourself as possible and agree with me that the new reflex described above doesn’t have a word in our vocabulary, like any other word in terms of objects, sensations, etc. However, it’s still a reflex. We just accept the fact that this reflex is without any name as such. What about emotions? Are they reflexes? Yes, of
course. There are about 10,000 known emotions. How many reflexes from those 10,000 emotions could be? Do we have names for those reflexes? Just imagine for a moment that each and every emotion consists of hundreds of little components. Those components could be part of another emotion right? As we have agreed above, they are all reflexes.

Please take a look at Part 3, Item 3 and observe dozens of feeling created by our reaction to external events. In fact, those feelings are nothing else than emotions. By analyzing them you can see that those feelings do not stay in our memory for a long time, opposite to senses, which are permanent. They are temporarily by nature and disappear in time. In other words, they seize to exist. This fact, in turn, tells us that emotions and feeling
are pure imaginary and do not exist in real world outside of our brain.

Illusions

Illusion could be different. The most popular illusions are visual (by observation) or mental (by assuming or using human logic, which contradicts with the nature most of the time). The most popular illusion is an angular size of the Son or the Moon at horizon. They look at least 2-3 times bigger than in zenith. There are 28 different explanations to this illusion. All of them lead to believe that the angular sizes of those two objects are the same regardless of what we observe. Mental illusion is more complicated than a visual one. A good example of a mental illusion is hypnosis. When a person is in the state of hypnosis he or she could have a suggestion that they have never smoke before. As soon as our memory is practically chemical, we can’t forget anything being created in our brain, and as a result it works for those who want to quit smoking.

Facts

For scientific community any fact becomes a fact when it has been confirmed by a number (usually 6 or more) other scientists and their discoveries have been published in renowned magazines. Until it has been confirmed, it is just a message, not the fact. It has happened recently with “discovery” of cold fusion, a process whereabouts a nuclear reaction can be achieved at a room temperature. On the same topic, when we read online articles about any progress in medical treatment and all without reference to scientific research – those
articles have no value and should be treated accordingly. A good example is alternative medicine, which has never been accepted by medical community, both scientifically and otherwise.

There is a classification of existing facts that have been already tabulated into a huge list of human achievements, inventions, and discoveries. They are all divided into three categories:

  •       Principles
  •       Effects
  •       Phenomena.

Any of them could belong to different disciplines, such as: mechanics, electrics, electronics, chemistry (organic and non-organic), structural, environmental, quantum, etc. There are more than 5,500 chemical, mechanical and electrical principles, effects, and phenomena presently known to the science of TRIZ with over 3,000,000 inventions being analyzed today. If you decided to reduce or eliminate blue Component C  on your own timeline all you need is to do is to study this science. Read more…

Your knowledge timeline could change it shape and looks like this:

a

b

c

Here the amount of unknown and your own believes becomes similar in size to your unknown   component until you try to reduce them again.

Here is what you can do to get rid of blue component altogether:

1. Stop applying human logic into any process or event outside of human presence. Here is example, which explains this approach:

“If the book of knowledge is on the surface of the Neptune planet, then what is it? Regardless of you possible answers, which will be incorrect no matter what you say, the proper answer is that is and object of a specific shape and thickness with many other flat inserts covered with graphite particles placed in some kind of order. This answer means the following: there is no human who could read this book and understand what it is. There nobody who tell that there are letters on the surface of that object. And, finally, it is total unknown what it is.

2. If our Universe is infinite (it is still unknown) and if we apply the theory of big numbers, it doesn’t mean that there is a planet somewhere within our Universe where intelligent creatures whom we can establish some sort of communication.

3. If we have an ability to think and communicate to each other there is no possible way to have mind-to-mind communication. See below Consciousness for details.

4. If there is no any scientific fact, which confirms healing effect of chiropractic, therapeutic  touch, acupuncture, shiatsu, homeopathy, chi, or meditation, then, probably for you, they do not exits and most of the time are real fraud.

Please continue reading all other parts of this article to get better understanding of many other so–called phenomena.

Well, I need to admit that you might need special knowledge on several subjects
to build a proper opinion about many things in our life – those which  majority
of people have no idea about.

That is why this article is written for. Enjoy!

Laws of Nature

There are a handful number of physical laws that are considered fundamental to the mankind. Let me list the most important ones:

  • Three laws by Isaac Newton (Motion – 1st Law, Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation – 2nd Law, Reaction – 3rd Law), 1687  (Watch this…)
  • Four laws of thermodynamics (Zeroth Law, 1st Law –  Energy Conservation, 2nd
    Law – Entropes Increase, 3rd Law – Entropy is zero at Absolute zero
    temperature)
  • Six Laplace transforms by Pierre-Simon Laplace), it is a function of a complex function of a complex variable.
  • Ohms Law in its integral form (plus another 17 electrical laws).

All the others are treated as theories, postulates or hypothesis until they become confirmed being universal. Not even every science is an exact science, like math for instance. Medicine, by the way, is not an exact science. Another example of experimental science is the strength of materials, one of the most critical and popular methods adopted by structural engineering. Another example is the Theory of Relativity. It is still a theory,
not a physical law. We need to see the difference between law and dogma, facts and illusion.

Logic

Logic was very popular in high schools back in the fifties. Today, logic becomes more and more attached to computer science. Many industrial processes are designed and developed using Programmable Logic Controllers where all functions of the controller have been accomplished by conventional logic using statements such as: AND, OR, NAND, XOR,IF and THEN.

Any other type logic is divided into psychological (IQ test), aptitude (logical test), and conventional human logic, which we apply to solve our day-to-day problems. In many instances we are trying to apply our human logic towards processes and events outside of human realm. This is the place for mistakes. For instance, our perception of infinity of the universe forces us to speculate on existence of human live on other solar systems similar to ours. Another example, if we have consciousness, it means that we can communicate to other humans or even non-human life form, such as animals. That is where we
substitute facts with human logic, which are not compatible.

Perception

Perception and illusion could be synonyms in terms of being seemingly identical and often mistaken. Here is a very important statement I want to make: among millions and millions (I am not kidding) reflexes we have developed in our brain, only less than 1% of our brain capacity is occupied. The rest of it is free for our knowledge to be chemically recorded. The latest calculation shows that the capacity of an average brain compared to computer storage will be able to hold the entire Library of Congress in Washington D.C. and it won’t
occupy more than 5%.

Now, we need to realize that anything in our brain, such as reflexes, sensations, emotions, feelings, and even thoughts do not exist outside our brain. In other words, they do not have any physical entity. They are just reflexes. In addition, the complexity of the neuron-synopsis structure of our brain cannot be identified and assumed to be divided into simple
components like we have in our computers, as an example. Our reflexes, and that is all we have, are nothing more than images. Also, we do not have any mechanism in our brain that is capable of transmitting images.

As soon as we agree (probably, not all of you) on non-physical (read spiritual) processes in our brain (read mind) we can make a logical assumption that if you have nothing to transmit it means that no communication from brain to brain is possible.
It means that the following investigation on the subject of paranormal makes no sense whatsoever. The short list of the “paranormal activities” is here:

telepathy, clairvoyance (extrasensory perception), telekinesis (moving objects
with mind) , channeling (mental communication), faith healing, therapeutic
touch, two-way communication to ‘high spirit’, superstitions, and hundreds
more.

All of them have no value. None of them works simply because there is no substance in any claims of paranormal evidence and no documented proof. Watch James Randy on YouTube.com and you will be shocked to see how much fraud is any claim of paranormal. There are several other popular practices known to mankind. They too do not have much sense. Instead of believing in anything you’ve been told or demonstrated, try to search for a proper explanation to any phenomena, which has questionable
appearance. Good example is Uri Geller with his bending keys and spoons tricks.

Knowledge                                                                                                                                          Knowledge is collective efforts of people who ever lived on the planet of Earth. The following 13  questions about the essence of knowledge must be answered by all of you:

  • Does the Internet search provide facts or knowledge?
  • Is knowledge absolute, that is one and only?
  • Does it come from a group of people or from one individual?
  • Can someone question the accuracy of any specific knowledge accepted by majority of people ?
  • What is the difference between knowledge and facts?
  • Does the knowledge become fact and vise-versa?
  • How can we distinguish facts from knowledge?
  • Who said that there was a difference between two words, knowledge and fact, both created by man?
  • Do we actually try to discover the true meaning of the word knowledge?
  • Does the knowledge actually exist outside of human brain?
  • Is the book of knowledge, the bible, in reality a book, knowledge or both? Maybe, it is just a history book?
  • How real is the knowledge? Is it tangible?
  • Does it exist within us or outside of us?

There are many questions and there are no answers yet. You need to answer those questions. You should be able to explain your answers to anyone who doesn’t understand them.

Inventions

In accordance to Wiki:

Invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within  engineering and product development activity. It may be an improvement upon a machine or product, or a new process for creating an object or a result. An invention that achieves a completely unique function or result may be a radical breakthrough. Such works are novel and not obvious to others skilled in the same field. An inventor may be taking a big step in success or failure”.

Let’s leave this topic for the future discussion.

Senses

We have a total of 12 different senses, starting with those listed under section Word
above. Let’s identify them all and see what they are:

Our Senses

vision

hearing

tactile

smell

warmth

motion

thirst

hanger

pain

libido

balance

gravity

Senses are related to primary reflexes being acquired with our birth. As an example, a catching reflex, which is a part of a motion sense, needs to be there just to protect a newborn baby from falling. It is mostly noticeable in primates. As you can see, there are no other senses, an extrasensory perception and alike that have been detected in humans or animals.

All of the senses we possess are a product of millions of years of evolution of
our DNA code.

Consciousness

It is the most complicated question since the appearance of homo-sapience on Earth: what is it? In simple notion Consciousness is the ability to think and analyze thoughts. In
addition Consciousness is the ability to create new totally mental images (read reflexes) and to use them like words or symbols. As I said, it is just ability not a reality of creating a tangible product or entity. Ability cannot be converted into anything, nor transmitted
to any other person unless it is a word or a symbol.

A similar example of a common misconception is the word energy. People use this word for describing energy flowing across human body.  Here is what the fundamental mistake of this misconception: Energy is ability to produce work, an action. There is nothing else.

Energy doesn’t exist on its own. When we say “a form of energy” we mean ability to do something. That is why all claims of energy transfer from one person to another are fraudulent, maybe even deliberate.

Consciousness has never been located in any part our brain. There is no trace of it anywhere rather in our literature. Are we in the position to say that consciousness is a reality or just a term, which explains our ability to think? Well, an ability as we said above, is not a physical reality. For this reason, consciousness doesn’t exist in its physical sense.

An example of a similar phenomenon is an Abstract Thinking, a highly respectful term in modern psychology. Let’s ask ourselves a question: does it actually exist anywhere? Maybe it is only an ability. If it is, then it is only seems real in our mind. If we consider our brain as a ‘factory’ of our mind, then our mind doesn’t exist outside of our brain, which means that it doesn’t exist at all. It is again and again, including Abstract Thinking which is pure spiritual, i.e. it exists only in our imagination and not in reality.  The same we can say about our consciousness. It is only our imagination, not a reality. That is why you can’t transmit consciousness including any known part of it and, of course, you can’t receive those parts. In terms of consciousness there is nothing to transmit and nothing to receive!

State of mind

These two words that are quite common among people who say to you “feel better”. What they are trying to say is an offer to you to change your mind to fill better. In fact, it is a quite complicated process as it looks. Let us get into the state of mind classification to be able to understand the meaning of the mind states.

Here it is: there are two major states of our mind that has been recognized by medical profession. It is sleep and awakening. There is also another state know as lucid state when a person is in between sleep and awakening. Read more here…

Some 20 years ago the author of this article conducted thorough research on this topic. The result of his research was quite unexpected: we, humans, have only one state, not many states, as we learn in high school or in college. That state is a combination of many states. On the contrary, there are dozens of states of mind being claimed by many groups from shiatsu to relaxation response and from chi to yoga and meditation. In addition to the universal state of mind being a combination of any other known and unknown states, there is a very simple method to get into any state you are familiar with. In fact, it will take about 2 hours of exercises to achieve that universal state of mind with no brainwashing, no any reading, and without following anybody footsteps and meditation.

If we take a look into a therapeutic hypnosis we can find that yet in the middle of the last century it has been known 12 different mind-states artificially created in a patient mind by implementing  a power of suggestion just for the sake of eliminating several mental disorders, one of them being insomnia.

Thoughts and Spirit

There are plenty of definitions of those two terms however, all of them are treating thoughts and spirit as something real. Yes, they are real. But they are real only in our mind. As we understand now, even the word mind, the way we understand it, is nothing but our imagination. It has, as well as our consciousness, never been found. What do you think about thoughts and spirit, which are a product of our mind? Same thing. Sorry to say to those of you who still believe in illusion and miracles. They exist only in our imagination. You can’t transfer any of your thoughts other than by words, image, sound or text. That is where ability to think becomes converted to a media for transmitting it to others.

Thank you for your understanding. Hope, you and I will start speaking the same language one day.

Truly yours,

Emil Sagal, P.Eng., Professor

Call me any time:  USA 847 693 4308, Canada 647 693 4308

 

 

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Hydrophobic Surface

Ultra-Ever Dry is a super-hydrophobic (water) and oleophobic  (hydrocarbons) coating that will completely repel almost any liquid.   Ultra-Ever Dry uses proprietary nanotechnology to coat an object and create a barrier of air on its surface.  This barrier repels water, oil and other liquids unlike any coating seen before.   The other breakthrough associated with Ultra-Ever Dry is the superior coating adherence and abrasion resistance allowing it to be used in all kinds of applications where durability is required.

By: www.UltraEverDry.com

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Energy Saving: Power Factor Correction

Power Factor Correction

Many loads are highly inductive, such a lightly loaded motors and illumination transformers and ballasts. You may want to correct the power factor by adding parallel capacitors. You can also add series capacitors to “remove” the effect of leakage inductance that limits the output current.

Why correct the power factor?

The current flow through the circuit is increased by the reactive component. Normally, loads are represented by a series combination of a resistance and a purely imaginary reactance. For this explanation, it is easier to contemplate it as an equivalent parallel combination. The diagram below illustrates a partially reactive load being fed from a real system with some finite resistance in the conductors, etc.

The current through the reactive component (Ireactive) dissipates no power, and neither does it register on the watt hour meter. However, the reactive current does dissipate power when flowing through other resistive components in the system, like the wires, the switches, and the lossy part of a transformer (Rline). Switches have to interrupt the total current, not just the active component. Wires have to be big enough to carry the entire current, etc. Correcting the power factor reduces the amount of oversizing necessary.

Correcting power factor

Given the reactive load component (Xload), you can calculate the capacitance that would be put in parallel to exactly match it using the equation:

Xc = 1/ (omega C) = 1/(2 *pi * f * C)
for 60 Hz: Xc = 1/( 2*pi * 60* C) =1/ (377*C)

or, rearranging: C = 1/(377*Xc)

Power factor correction capacitors are often rated in kVar, instead of uF, because that is how the power company works. Say a factory has several thousand horsepower worth of motors at .85 power factor. They might have a reactive component of several hundred kVar. At a distribution voltage of 14,400 volts, this would require a capacitor with an impedance of a bit more than 1000 ohms, or about 2.5 microfarads, a reasonable sized and priced package. However, if you were crazy enough to try to compensate this at 230 volts, you would need about .01 Farads (i.e. 10,000 uF), a sizeable package.

For very large systems, even capacitors get unwieldy. One approach is to use large over excited synchronous motors which look like capacitors, electrically. Another approach is clever systems of thyristors and inductors which simulate the capactive reactance by drawing “displacement current”.

Loads that draw non-sinusoidal current

Classic reactive loads, like transformers, lighting ballasts, and AC motors still have a sinusoidal current flow. The phase of the current is just shifted from that of the supply voltage. However, there are some loads which draw distinctly non-sinusoidal currents. The most recently notorious is the switching power supply in a PC. These power supplies start with a bridge rectifier feeding a capacitor, and so, particularly at part load, draw their current in little peaks, when the instantaneous line voltage is above the capacitor voltage, forward biasing the rectifier. Another notorious non-sinusoidal current draw is the popular phase controlled light dimmer, which uses a TRIAC or SCR to reduce the RMS voltage to the load by turning on partway through the half cycle. Not only is the current waveform highly non-sinusoidal, but it is also out of phase with the voltage supply. Hence, these loads have a non-unity power factor, and draw reactive power.

However, to compensate these loads, you have to come up with a means to supply the reactive current at the appropriate times. A simple capacitor doesn’t do this. A capacitor only compensates nice sinusoidal power factor lags, like those from linear (non-saturating) inductors.

Example of Power Factor Correction

Let’s take an example. A 3/4 HP electric motor has a power factor of .85. The nameplate current is 10 Amps at 115 Volts, or 1150 Volt Amps.

  • Apparent power = 1150 Volt Amps
  • Active power (P) = .85 * 1150 = 977.5 Watts
  • Reactive Power (Q) = sqrt(1150^2 – 977.5^2) = 605 VAR

So, we need about 600 var of power factor correction. I’m rounding to a couple digits, because, in reality, it’s unlikely that the power factor is known to more accuracy, nor will any of the PFC components be that precise. (10% accuracy would be quite good for a capacitor). Now, assume we want to put the capacitor in parallel with the motor: Calculating the required impedance from Q = E^2/X, where Q is the reactive power needed:

  • 600 = 115^2/X => X = 115^2/600 = 22 ohms (rounding to 2digits)
  • C = 1 /( 2 * pi * f *X) = 1/ (377 * 22) = 120 uF (again, rounding to 2 digits)

which is a fairly large capacitor in a constant duty environment (i.e. motor run, as opposed to motor start, where the capacitor is only in the circuit for a short time). You can calculate the RMS current through the capacitor either by dividing the VARs by the line voltage (600/115) or by dividing line voltage by reactance (115/22); both come out at around 5 1/4 Amps, so you’d want a capacitor rated at somewhat more current (e.g. 7-10 A). The capacitor’s series resistance should be pretty low, or it will dissipate a fair amount of energy. If the dissipation factor were 1%, you’d be dissipating about 6 Watts in the capacitor.

One can also put the PFC capacitor in series with the load. In this case the capacitor would carry the entire load current of 10A, but, the required value is different. For a series compensation, you’d determine the series equivalent of the load (we used a parallel model, above). For the series model, you use currents, instead of voltages:

600 VAR = I^2 * X => 600 = 10*10 * X => X = 6 ohms

And converting an impedance to a capacitance: C=1/(377*6) = 440 uF.

So, not only would the capacitor be larger, but it would need to carry the entire load current. For this example, at least, parallel PFC seems to be a better approach. Only if the power factor were very poor, so the reactive impedance was quite large (and the corresponding capacitance low) would series compensation seem to be useful.

If the line voltage were higher, the correction impedance would be increased as the square of the line voltage. The capacitance would be reduced as the square of the line voltage. That is, if the same motor were run off 230 Volts, the capacitor would only need to be about 30 uF. And if we were to do power factor compensation at the distribution voltage of 4160 volts (for example), you would only need about .1 uF. This is why power factor correction is usually done in the distribution network at MV or HV, and not at the end voltage.


By Jim Lux
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Wind Power Calculation

Wind Power Calculation

Because air has mass and it moves to form wind, it has kinetic energy. You may remember from science class that:

kinetic energy (joules) = 0.5 x m x V2

  • where:
    m = mass (kg) (1 kg = 2.2 pounds)
    V = velocity (meters/second) (meter = 3.281 feet = 39.37 inches)

Usually, we’re more interested in power (which changes moment to moment) than energy. Since energy = power x time and density is a more convenient way to express the mass of flowing air, the kinetic energy equation can be converted into a flow equation:

Power in the area swept by the wind turbine rotor:

P = 0.5 x rho x A x V3

  • where:
    P = power in watts (746 watts = 1 hp) (1,000 watts = 1 kilowatt)
    rho = air density (about 1.225 kg/m3 at sea level, less higher up)
    A = rotor swept area, exposed to the wind (m2)
    V = wind speed in meters/sec (20 mph = 9 m/s) (mph/2.24 = m/s)

This yields the power in a free flowing stream of wind. Of course, it is impossible to extract all the power from the wind because some flow must be maintained through the rotor (otherwise a brick wall would be a 100% efficient wind power extractor). So, we need to include some additional terms to get a practical equation for a wind turbine.

Wind Turbine Power:

P = 0.5 x rho x A x Cp x V3 x Ng x Nb

  • where:
    P = power in watts (746 watts = 1 hp) (1,000 watts = 1 kilowatt)
    rho = air density (about 1.225 kg/m3 at sea level, less higher up)
    A = rotor swept area, exposed to the wind (m2)
    Cp = Coefficient of performance (.59 {Betz limit} is the maximum theoretically possible, .35 for a good design)
    V = wind speed in meters/sec (20 mph = 9 m/s)
    Ng = generator efficiency (50% for car alternator, 80% or, possibly, more for a permanent magnet generator or grid-connected induction generator)
    Nb = gearbox/bearings efficiency (could be as high as 95% if good)

By Eric Eggleston, 5 February 1998

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Games to Play

Combine Ultra – the Game of Logic and Challenge


Instructions: Arrow keys or WASD to move left/right, rotate and drop the balls.

 

Instructions: Arrow keys or WASD to move left/right, rotate and drop the balls.

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Strange people and animals

Here are some strange people and animals!!!!

 

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Half human and half Dog?

“Most people are not aware that these kinds of experiments have been taking place in the U.K. and find it deeply offensive. Parliament should follow France and Germany and prohibit the creation of animal-human hybrid embryos.”
What do you think about this half human and half Dog?

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5 ways to listen better

Julian Treasure: 5 ways to listen better

In our louder and louder world, says sound expert Julian Treasure, “We are losing our listening.” In this short, fascinating talk, Treasure shares five ways to re-tune your ears for conscious listening — to other people and the world around you.

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